" Salah (Prayer) "
To which prophet were five daily preyers revealed?
Which prophet was ordained to perform 5 fard salah?
Plenty of ayahs and hadiths declare that 5 fard salah was revealed upon the last Prophet, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
The imams of the four sunni schools of thoughts (madhabs) are in consensus that the Muslim ummah is ordained to pray five daily prayers as declared in the ayahs and hadiths.
Five daily prayers were ordained upon the Muslim ummah on the night of Miraj which took place one year before the hijrah (Prophet’s (pbuh) migration from Mecca to Madina) to perform at certain prescribed times. These prescribed times are fajr (near dawn), dhuhr (after the sun's noon), asr (in the afternoon), maghrib (just after sunset), isha’a (around nightfall).
Some of the ayahs in the holy Quran about 5 daily prayers:
“So glory be to Allah when ye enter the night and when ye enter the morning – (perform maghrib, isha and fajr); Unto Him be praise in the heavens and the earth! - and at the sun's decline and in the noonday. (perform asr and dhuhr) (Surah al Rum, 17, 18)
“Bear then patiently what they say, and glorify your Lord by the praising of Him before the rising of the sun (salat al fajr) and before its setting (salat al asr), and during hours of the night (mahjrib and ishaa prayers) do also glorify (Him) and during parts of the day (salat al dhuhr), that you may be well pleased.” (Surah al Taha, 130)
“Perform the Salah from midday till the darkness of the night, and recite the Qur'an in the early dawn. Verily, the recitation of the Qur'an in the early dawn is ever witnessed.)” (Surah al Isra, 78)
Interpretation of this ayah is stated in Tafser ıbn Kathir as following;
Allah says, commanding His Messenger to offer the prescribed prayers at the appointed times:
﴿أَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ﴾
(Perform the Salat from midday.)
Hushaym narrated from Mughirah from Ash-Sha`bi from Ibn `Abbas: "Midday means when the sun is at its zenith.'' This was also reported by Nafi` from Ibn `Umar, and by Malik in his Tafsir from Az-Zuhri from Ibn `Umar. This was the opinion of Abu Barzah Al-Aslami and Mujahid, and of Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Ja`far Al-Baqir and Qatadah. It is also understood to ﴿generally﴾ refer to the times of the five prayers. Allah said;
﴿لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَى غَسَقِ الَّيْلِ﴾
(from midday till the darkness of the night,)
meaning darkness, or it was said, sunset. This was understood to mean Zuhr `Asr, Maghrib and `Isha'.
(and recite the Qur'an in the early dawn.)
meaning Salat Al-Fajr. The details of the timings of the prayers were reported in the Mutawatir Sunnah from the words and deeds of the Prophet , and this is what the people of Islam have followed until the present day.
Angel Gibril was sent to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to define the limits of 5 daily salat.
Abi Mas'ud Al-Ansari said, Don't you know that once gabriel came and offered the prayer (Fajr prayer) and Allah's Apostle prayed too, then he prayed again (Zuhr prayer) and so did Allah's Apostle and again he prayed ('Asr prayers and Allah's Apostle did the same; again he prayed (Maghrib-prayer) and so did Allah's Apostle and again prayed ('Isha prayer) and so did Allah's Apostle and (gabriel) said, 'I was ordered to do so (to demonstrate the prayers prescribed to you)?'" (Bukhari; Book #10, Hadith #500)
'Urwa said, "I heard Bashir bin Abi Masud narrating from Ibn Masud who heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'gabriel descended and led me in prayer; and then prayed with him again, and then prayed with him again, and then prayed with him again, and then prayed with him again, counting with his fingers five prayers." (Bukhari; Book #54, Hadith #444)
The following hadith, after describing the Miraj journey, narrates that Allah (swt) enjoined 5 daily prayers on the Muslim ummah:
“Then Gabriel ascended with me to a place where I heard the creaking of the pens." Ibn Hazm and Anas bin Malik said: The Prophet said, "Then Allah enjoined fifty prayers on my followers when I returned with this order of Allah, I passed by Moses who asked me, 'What has Allah enjoined on your followers?' I replied, 'He has enjoined fifty prayers on them.' Moses said, 'Go back to your Lord (and appeal for reduction) for your followers will not be able to bear it.' (So I went back to Allah and requested for reduction) and He reduced it to half. When I passed by Moses again and informed him about it, he said, 'Go back to your Lord as your followers will not be able to bear it.' So I returned to Allah and requested for further reduction and half of it was reduced. I again passed by Moses and he said to me: 'Return to your Lord, for your followers will not be able to bear it. So I returned to Allah and He said, 'These are five prayers and they are all (equal to) fifty (in reward) for My Word does not change.' I returned to Moses and he told me to go back once again. I replied, 'Now I feel shy of asking my Lord again.' (Sahih Bukhari; Book of Salat; 345) Kaynak: http://askaquestionto.us - To which prophet were five daily preyers revealed?